Philosophy of Education is a field of inquiry, speculation, and application in which philosophical methods are applied to the study of a problem, topic, or issue in education. Characteristic of these methods is the attempt to think as accurately, clearly, coherently, and systematically as possible. Analytical philosophers would say that philosophy of education should end with the attempt to clarify and justify educational statements and arguments. In practice, however, the field includes much more than that. There is, much overlap with the field of history of education, and ultimately no clear demarcation can be drawn between the fields, which nourish and illuminate each other in the interconnectedness. Many philosophers of education also go beyond analysis in being concerned with establishing a commitment to value judgments and substantive positions. They take pains to attempt to clarify and justify those judgments and positions on the grounds that clear and substantiated judgments have greater probability of being sound.
Motivations to learning are more variable in man than in subhuman species. In other animals learning patterns develop largely through instinctual motivationsThis means that lower animals need less training than humans before they are independent and self-reliant. Human beings are the most dependent of creatures when young, and they take longest to educate for independent activity. It is precisely this long period of dependence and education that constitutes man’s superiorly over lower animals, for it is in this period that the growing human being absorbs much of his culture and develops the skills and knowledge that enable him to build on the work of his predecessors. His lower degree of reliance of innate mechanisms also means that man is more flexible in his responses and is capable of adjusting those response in the light of pervious expenses. Thus, he is not condemned to repeat previous patterns of living and thinking but can create change, both in himself and in his culture.
So far there have been discovered no limits to man’s capacity to learn. From earliest times, however, men in positions of power or influence have suggested that the learning capacity of certain individuals or groups is severely limited and that they should not be expected to profit greatly, if at all, from education. These “ineducable” individuals have usually been members of minority or disadvantages have been removed, these groups have shown that their previous failure to learn has been happened not due to incapacity but due to the lack of fully realized opportunity.
Vocational Education-instruction intended to equip persons for industrial or commercial-may be obtained either formally in trade schools, technical schools, or in on-the-job training programs or more informally, by picking up the necessary skills on the job, industrial, agricultural and home making courses.
Vocational education in schools is a relatively modern development. Until the 19-century such education, except for the professions, was provided only by apprenticeship. This situation was partly due to the low social status associated with such instruction as opposed to a classical curriculum, which was considered “necessary for a gentleman”. With the growth of industrialization during the 19th century.
However, several European countries, notably Germany, began introducing vocational education in elementary and secondary schools. In Great Britain, however, opposition to vocational education persisted into the 20-century, although a few trade and junior technical schools were established by local authorities before World War II.
By the late 19-century public (common) school vocational education in the United States consisted of manual training and practical arts. These programs were gradually expanded until 1917 when federal aid was provided to public schools for trade and industrial, agricultural and home making courses.
After World War II the demand for trained paraprofessionals in the relatively new fields of computer science, electronics and medical services led to an increased interest in short term post secondary specialized programs in these areas as an alternative to a traditional college education.
Every citizen in a modern democracy should be equipped to contribute effectively to the welfare of the society. Thus on practical as well as theoretical grounds and from social as well as individualistic point of view, it is necessary to equip every young person for some occupations so that he may contribute effectively to the satisfaction of human wants.
This fact has been receiving focus in the recommendations of various education commissions since 1964-66 till the National Education Policy of 1986 have emphasized the priority of various education programme. Work experience should be introduced as an integral part of all education, general or vocational, as one of the programmes to relate education to life and productivity.
The vocationalization provides for diversification of educational opportunities so as to enhance individual employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of skilled manpower.
In the context of reaching the unreached, PSET National Vocational Education system is being established firmly in India with a mission to take education to the doorsteps of the learners, enhancing social equality and creating flexibility for life long learning.
PSET extends these Vocational Education Programmes, under National Vocational Education Mission which varies from one to two years duration, through its Vocational and IT Education Institutes which are well established with adequate modern infrastructure facilities and in house training facilities.
It is an added advantage that the development of curriculum, extension of training, information dissemination, monitoring, evaluation, consultant services and the quality and standards of teaching professionals are up to the standards. It is to be noted that these institutions serve as overall resources Centres.